Journey Map

Engineering Area
Analysis & problem definition
Group or Individual
Group, Individual
Amount of People
Up to 15
Type of Class
Practice-based, Theory-based
Duration of Activity
Between one and two hours, More than 2 hours
Type of Activity
Collaborative team setting, On-line Classroom activity, Self-work by students


What is this technique about

Journey maps combine storytelling and visualisation, allowing the individual/teams to understand and address the customer’s needs. Storytelling and visualisation are essential aspects of a journey map as they are effective in conveying the information in a concise, impactful and memorable way. A journey map creates a shared vision which is critical and is the main aim of creating a journey map.

Journey maps are created to support a known business goal. The goal can be an external issue, such as learning about a specific persona (a customer type) or an internal issue, such as addressing a customer experience problem. Journey maps that fail to align with a business goal will not create any insight. Some potential goals where journey mapping could be applied to are:

    1. Shifting a company’s perspective to being customer-centric
    2. Creating one shared organisation wide vision
    3. Assigning ownership of key touchpoints
    4. Targetting specific customer profiles

Where does it come from 

The journey mapping technique was developed in 1985 by Ron Zemke and Chip Bell. It was initially developed for a telecom company to solve customer experience issues following a residential telephone outage.

For which purposes it is used (why in your engineering teaching)

The journey map method can be used in engineering education to introduce the concept of powerful story telling. The method introduces the method of presenting facts, and ideas in a concise and impactful way. The method also strengthens customer-centric innovation perspective in students.

How to use it

A compelling journey mapping has five key high-level steps:

    1. Aspirations and allies – building the core team and defining the scope for mapping
    2. Internal investigation – gathering existing data and research
    3. Assumption – formulation of hypothesis on the current state of the journey
    4. External research – collecting new data for validation/invalidation of assumption
    5. Narrative visualisation – creating a visual narrative combining existing insights and new research

The figure below shows a deconstructed journey map.

A journey map can be divided Into 3 district zones.

    • Zone A – provides the constraints for the map. It contains:
      1. The persona considered (“Who”) and
      2. The scenario to be examined (“What”)

    • Zone B – provides the visualisation part of the journey map. The data required for this part is taken from the internal and external research phases. It contains:
      1. Distinct phases of the journey
      2. Actions taken by the persona
      3. Thoughts of the persona
      4. Emotional experience of the persona/user

    • Zone C – is the output or the insights section and can be modified according to the business goals. It usually contains two sections:
      1. Opportunities to focus and explore
      2. Internal ownership during the phase

How to implement this techniques online

A journey map may be easily created online using tools such as Miro, Mural or Canva. A whiteboard application allowing real-time collaboration, such as Miro and Mural, is suggested if the assignment is group work and a simple poster creation application such as Canva is suggested if the assignment is individually assessed.
Preparation, what do before the session
    1. Prepare a time schedule and clarify for yourself the purpose of using the method. You will then be better able to explain the activity to the students.
    2. Create a scenario for a customer journey for the students to work on.
    3. Create a new board using templates, search for “journey map”. Both Miro and Mural application has free journey map diagram templates.
    4. Make a guideline for the students and describe the target group and what they shall do during the journey map creation.
    5. Upload all documents to a shared folder so that all students can access them.
    6. Inform the participants that they need to access the documents on the day of the session (if they have never used the platform before, ask them to test whether they can access it.)
    7. Students can do this task individually or in groups. If you want to allocate them to groups, prepare a document that assigns them to groups, and upload this document also.

During application, i.e., while giving the session

    1. Introduce the session by giving the participants basic information about the exercise (e.g., timeline, guidelines, templates).
    2. Ask the group to brainstorm on the topic before they start preparing the journey map.
    3. Ask them to follow the 5 level steps to create a compelling journey map (Figure 2).
    4. Ask them to complete the journey map based on the template.

Follow-up, about what to do after the session

    1. Give the students feedback on the journey map they have created.

Examples and/or testimonials

Video online on YouTube:

Tools needed

For applying the technique in an online setting, the following tools may be used:

    • A whiteboard platform for organising data while allowing the members to work collaboratively. Tools like Mural and Miro both contain templates for creating different journey maps and are easy to customise. However, using a whiteboard may be restricted to projects and assignments requiring teamwork and collaboration. Example of whiteboard tools:
      • Mural
      • Miro
      • Concept Board
    • A poster-creating platform is helpful if an individual creates the journey map for individual assessment. Example of poster creating tools.
      • Canva
      • Pixton



Kaplan, K. (2016). Journey Mapping in Real Life: A Survey of UX Practitioners. Nielsen Norman Group. Retrieved October 14, 2022, from


NNgroup. (2019, May 10). Customer Journey Mapping 101. [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved October 14, 2022, from

Miro. (2020, March 19). 6 Tips to Creating Customer Journey Maps. [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved October 14, 2022, from

PlaybookUX. (2019, February 17). Customer Journey Map Workshop. [Video]. YouTube. Available at:


Rosenbaum, M. S., Otalora, M. L., Ramírez, G. C. (2017). How to create a realistic customer journey map. In: Business Horizons, 60(1), 143-150. DOI:

Micheaux, A., Bosio, B. (2018). Customer Journey Mapping as a New Way to Teach Data-Driven Marketing as a Service. In: Journal of Marketing Education, 41(2), 127-140. DOI:


Kalbach, J. (2016). Mapping Experiences: A Complete Guide to Creating Value Through Journeys, Blueprints, and Diagrams. O’Reilly Media, Inc. Retrieved October 14, 2022, from

Curedale, R. (2016). Journey Maps: The Tool for Design Innovation. Design Community College. Retrieved October 14, 2022, from